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师说|博埃里建筑设计事务所(SBA)Pietro Chiodi:垂直森林解决拥挤城市的自然环境问题

[原创] 时间 : 2021年6月10日 17:42浏览 : 来源 : 设计能资讯中心 编辑 : 江北

博埃里建筑设计事务所(SBA)总部位于米兰,在上海和多哈均设有工作室(2008年前称为Boeri 工作室),自1993年以来一直致力于建筑和城市规划的研究与实践。知名项目有:米兰垂直森林,阿尔巴尼亚地拉那2030城市规划,马赛地中海文化中心和马达莱纳军工厂海之屋。

竣工于2014年的米兰垂直森项目,是一个可持续性发展的高层住宅的新型典范,两栋大楼被700棵树木与植物完全覆盖。 垂直森林荣获了包括2014年法兰克福高层建筑奖和由芝加哥高层建筑与城市居署理事会和伊利诺伊理工学院共同推动的全球最佳高层建筑奖——CTBUH大奖(2015)在内的无数的国际奖项。

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米兰垂直森林


人与自然共存,是当代设计师讨论最多的话题。我们在别墅或是独立住宅的项目中,可以看到设计师们常通过室内外景观互融的方式,将自然引进住宅中,从而达到人与自然共存的状态。

而在当下城市化进程速度加快,人口密集、用地紧张的情况下,楼房越建越高,越来越密,以此满足更多人口的生存条件。高楼林立的城市一副将自然拒于千里之外的冷酷模样,而垂直森林则是要将自然塞入这个冰冷的空间中,去贴近人类最真实的情感。

设计师Pietro Chiodi为建筑学博士,意大利注册建筑师。从2008年开始至今,担任博埃里建筑设计事务所高级建筑师、设计总监。有25年从事规划设计(研究)经验的他,至今已负责设计建设了南京垂直森林、黄冈垂直森林综合体、百联衍庆里时尚中心、深圳无障碍双创中心等多项建筑方案的设计和实施。

此次设计能有幸采访到Pietro Chiodi。

Pietro Chiodi - Architecture Design Director
Pietro Chiodi - Architecture Design Director


Q1

贵司是何时开始关注自然环境的?是在怎么样的环境下,受到了什么启发从而决定将公司所承接的项目定位为森林化的?
When did your company begin to pay attention to the natural environment? What are the circumstances and inspirations that inspired SBA to locate the projects undertaken by the company as foresting?

SBA has always paid great attention to the natural environment, also to be understood as attention to man, his physical and mental well-being. Surely the intuition of including plants and trees in the construction of buildings or in planning on a territorial scale as an integral part of the 'materials' for the development of projects has led to a radical change in our thinking, the development and growth of the habitat. A substantial change in thinking about places where man is no longer the only actor at the center of the project but where the increase in biodiversity, the creation of hospitable places for different animal or plant species is crucial for a new vision of our future. With benefits for the whole planet, even for us humans.
SBA 一直非常关注自然环境,也可以说,我们一直都在关注人类的身心健康。当然,对于将植物和树木包括在建筑物的建造或领土范围内的规划中作为项目开发“材料”的一个组成部分的思考已经导致了我们思维的根本变化,人类不再是我们项目中唯一的参与者,对生物多样性的增加、为不同动物或植物物种创造适宜居住的地方的思考,对我们未来所期望的新愿景至关重要,这对整个地球和我们人类的生态环境也都有极大的益处。

创始人stefano boeri
博埃里建筑设计事务所(SBA)创始人Stefano Boeri


Q2

博埃里建筑设计事务所的许多设计都关注可持续发展性,包括您本人也是尤其关注自然。而在人口相对密集的城市,人们更多关注的是住房问题,如何在相对紧缩的城市空间内,容纳自然的存在?
Many of the designs of SBA are concerned with sustainability, and you yourself are particularly concerned with nature. However, in densely populated cities, for example cities in China, people pay more attention to the housing problem. How to accommodate nature in the relatively tight urban space?

I believe that projects such as the Vertical Forest, where the density and use of nature vertically represent the cornerstones, are perfect for the Chinese reality. In fact, they represent a solution to prefigure the growth of urban agglomerations in a new, different way. We are thinking the growth of cities as an opportunity to increase their biodiversity, to create a system that can accommodate not only humans but also nature and other animal beings, which can help contain the rise in temperatures, absorb CO2 and produce oxygen. We are also working on a larger project, a Forest City that can offer itself as an alternative on an urban scale to the phenomena in place. A model with multiple applications, both to save agricultural/peri-urban areas and to imagine new town (and city archipelagos) in territories not yet reached.
我相信像垂直森林这样的项目,以自然的密度和垂直利用模式为基石的模式,是非常适合中国土地现状的。事实上,它们代表了一种全新的、不同的预测城市群增长的解决方案。我们将城市的发展视为增加其生物多样性的机会,以创建一个不仅可以容纳人类,还可以容纳自然界其他动物的生态系统,这一系统不仅可以帮助控制温度上升、还有利于吸收二氧化碳并产生氧气。与此同时,我们也在开展一个更大的项目,即森林城市,它可以在城市范围内作为现有现象的替代方案。一个具有多种应用的模型,既可以拯救农业/城市周边地区,也可以在尚未开发的地区来进行未来新城镇(和城市群岛)的畅想。

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f5a628176ea064b358ac69b88ed671b米兰垂直森林


Q3

垂直森林目前进展如何?未来如何规划?
Your company is currently working on several vertical forest project. What kind of project are they?

We are completing several vertical forest around the world. Here in China, in Huanggang we have just finished two residential towers, it is a very interesting project because it develops a new type of residence for the Chinese market and uses a previously never developed vertical forest facade. The interiors blend with nature, extending the spaces of the house to the outside through glazed volumes that alternate with the plants and trees that inhabit the façade.
In Nanjing we are completing a multifunctional complex, two office towers and a commercial podium. A very iconic project for the city and for its development across the Qinghuai river. A VF system more similar to the sone adopted in Milan but which uses terracotta as a cladding for the balconies and the non-glazed bands that unite them, thus creating a marked horizontal system, restoring a completely new image linked to the place.
In Shenzhen we are starting the construction of a large rehabilitation center. A complex that aspires to become the reference for this kind of complex. A landscape building that merges four large buildings into a single terraced volume with an open courtyard in the center. A pedestrian square as a heart and green roof gardens that are therapeutic and functional to the various internal environments that culminate in a tower, in a mountain in one corner. A new green sky line for the city.
我们世界各地范围内的几个垂直森林正在建造中。在中国的黄冈,我们也刚刚完成了两座垂直森林住宅楼的建设,这是一个非常有趣的项目,因为它为中国市场引进了一种新型住宅,并使用了以前从未开发过的垂直森林立面。使室内设计与自然融为一体,通过立面上植被和树木交替的玻璃体量将室内的房屋空间延伸到外部。

SBA_Huanggang Vertical Forest_1st Visit_Selected-4

SBA_Huanggang Vertical Forest_1st Visit_Selected-7黄冈垂直森林


在南京,我们也正在完成一个多功能综合体、其中包括两座办公大楼和一座商业裙楼。对于这座城市及其在秦淮河上的发展而言,这是一个非常具有标志性的项目。垂直森林系统与米兰采用的系统更加相似,加之使用赤陶作为阳台的覆层和将它们连接起来的无釉带,共同创建了一个明显的水平系统,恢复了其极具地区性标志的全新形象。

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2南京垂直森林


在深圳,我们正在着手建设一个大型康复中心,一座景观建筑。我们将四栋大型建筑合并成一个单一的梯田体量,中央有一个开放的庭院。其中的步行广场作为心脏和绿色屋顶花园,对各种内部环境都具有治疗性和功能性,这些内部环境延伸并汇集到了一个点达到了高潮。形成了一条全新的城市绿色天际线。
 
Q4

垂直森林如何在满足建筑空间的功能性之外穿插树木的?在建筑的布局上有哪些思考?
Besides satisfying the functional space of the building, how does trees intersperse in the vertical forest? What are the thoughts on the layout of the building?

Sometimes the opposite happens, first we study the arrangement of the trees and their use on the facade and then we adapt the internal layouts but generally they are two aspects that grow in parallel. They are not two distinct phases but a single process where functional plants and a facade study to accommodate the plant elements are developed interacting with each other.
关于树木和建筑,我们有时会采用逆向思维,首先我们会研究树木的布置和它们在立面上的用途,随之调整内部布局。但通常来说,它们两者是需要平行思考的方面。这两个因素并非处于不同的阶段,而是一个统一的过程。在这个过程中,功能性植物和容纳植物元素的立面研究会同时进行,共同发展。

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米兰垂直森林内部


Q5

在项目真正投入使用后,是否有收到用户的反馈?是否有关于用户不满意的相关问题出现?
Have you received any feedback from users after the project has been put into use? Are there any issues related to user dissatisfaction?

VF Milano has been and continues to be a great success. Not only in terms of image and fame for the SBA but also as a real estate investment for the owners. The market value, which was already higher than the average in the area, has risen significantly but the most rewarding thing is the level of satisfaction of the inhabitants. The domestic environments surrounded by greenery, the light filtered by the leaves, the large terraces are just some aspects. What was not foreseeable is how much people have come closer to nature, not only to the flora but also to the fauna that lives in the VF, small birds, migratory birds, ladybugs… an ecosystem that feeds and sustains itself naturally.
米兰垂直森林已经投入使用并取得了巨大成功。这种成功不仅体现在博埃里建筑设计事务所的形象和声誉方面,更体现在了业主的房地产投资方面。目前,该地区的平均市场价已大幅上涨。但对我们来说最有价值的还是居民的满意度。绿树环绕的家庭环境、被树叶过滤过的光线,大露台都为住户的生活提供了不一样的乐趣。在更远的未来,人们还将更加接近自然,不仅是植物群,还有生活在垂直森林中的动物群,小鸟、候鸟、瓢虫……一个自然维持自身的生态系统。

df18a7d4911e03c485602b54ae39cdf

m7米兰垂直森林


Q6

你们的项目类型丰富,遍布全球各地。对于位于不同地区不同类型的项目,你们是如何着手设计的?如何适应不同的城市环境和项目类型,同时体现出博埃里自身的设计特点?
Your projects are diverse and spreading all over the world. How do you approach design for different projects in different locations? How to adapt to different urban environments and project types, while at the same time reflecting SBA's own design characteristics?

Having traveled the world and continuing to do so is personally enriching but also professionally useful in trying to get to know and understand different places and cultures. All this is also poured into the design where being able to imagine the context, the dynamics of the place and the future users are an initial advantage. In addition, especially if direct commissions, and in any case in the following steps, we go on site and depending on the case we have, even temporarily, established a working group on site. Our starting approach does not change, our attention is always directed not only to the mere solution of a functional program but we try to develop an idea that through initial requests can trigger wider processes, social dynamics, enrichment of biodiversity, creation of places for the sociability and well-being of man and the planet that hosts us. As for the plants, we make use of experts who study the climatic conditions, select the essences suitable for the place and the project so the nature on our buildings is always the result of a place and its specific characteristics.
我认为在世界上更多的地方进行项目建设不仅可以丰富个人生活,而且在尝试了解和了解不同地方和文化方面也具有专业意义。将所有的这一切融入设计中,能够想象环境、地方的动态和未来的用户都是最初的优势。此外,特别是直接委托的项目,在项目进行过程中,我们会前往现场,并根据情况,甚至临时在现场建立一个工作组。我们原有的设计方法没有发生改变,但会在基础上进行进一步的发展,即通过最初的思考可以容纳更大维度的内容,包括社会动态、丰富生物多样性、为人类创造场所人类和我们所在星球的社交能力和福祉。至于植物方面,我们邀请了研究气候条件的专家,并根据具体地点选择可适合种植的植被,因此我们建筑物上的自然生态自始至终都是地点及其特定特征的集合。

衍庆里夜景Yanqingli night view

2b692000960d97772c46cd263fce8c1衍庆里项目夜景


Q7

关注自然是贵公司的企业文化,您是被公司影响变成一个关注自然的人?还是原来自己就是一个爱护自然的人?在对待自然上,您除了做出对自然有利的设计外,还做了哪些努力?
Paying attention to nature is the corporate culture of your company. Are you influenced by your company to become a person who pays attention to nature, or were you a nature lover from the beginning? In the treatment of nature, in addition to making designs beneficial to the nature, what other efforts have you made?

I have always been a lover of nature but surely working constantly with natural elements as an integral part of our way of designing and thinking about the world of the future has led me to a greater awareness of the benefits, peculiarities, mechanisms that only nature possesses. For example, what has really changed is the point of view, respect and consideration of plants, in particular of trees, of their ability to adapt, of their memory, of their intelligence. 
一直以来,我都是大自然爱好者,因此自然元素也是我们设计和思考未来世界的方式的一个重要组成部分,这让我对大自然所拥有的得天独厚的益处、特性和机制有了更深刻的认识。也真正改变了我对植物,尤其是树木的看法,对其特性和其自身智慧的了解,让我更加尊重植物在地球上的独一无二的作用。

门楼样式Gatehouse style
衍庆里项目门楼样式


Q8

是什么契机让您来到中国发展?
For what reasons that you choose to work in China? 

For several reasons. In 2016 after coordinating for two years the projects in China from Italy it was time to follow the projects and constructions on site, the studio needed to grow, I was fascinated by this new professional challenge and last but not least with my wife we were interested in offering a new experience abroad to our daughters.
我来中国的原因有很多。2016年的时候,我已经在意大利协调了两年多的中国项目,我认为是时候开始在现场去跟踪项目和施工阶段了,我们的工作室正是需要成长的时候,而对于我的专业来说,则是一个全新的挑战。另外一个很重要的原因是,我和我的妻子认为来到中国,可以给我们的女儿们的生活提供一种全新的海外生活的体验。

中庭空间-2Atrium space-2

中庭空间-3Atrium space-3衍庆里项目中庭空间


Q9

博埃里建筑设计事务所是一个非常国际化的公司,团队中也有来自各个国家的人,您作为设计总监,如何去协调大家的相处模式?包括语言、想法方面,是否有过沟通困难的时刻?
SBA is an international company, team members are from different countries. As the design director, how do you manage the team? Have you ever had difficulties in communication, including language and ideas?

I always try to have a direct relationship with all the architects of the office. I believe that mutual availability is the basis of our work as well as assuming their responsibilities. These are essential elements to work well in synergy. In the first period here in China I tried to understand the differences between the new Chinese colleagues and those I had met in Europe in order to be able to better relate to them. The biggest problems I encountered was the communications with clients also because of the language, with the architects of the studio instead sometimes it just takes more time but in the end through the project you understand each other and now that I know several colleagues since years it is even easier.
一般来说,我会试图与办公室的所有建筑师建立相对直接的联系。我相信互助是我们进行所有工作和承担工作责任的基础,这是协同工作的基本要素。我到中国做的第一件事情就是试图了解中国的新同事和我之前在欧洲时共事的同事之间的差异,以便更好地与他们建立联系。在此之间,我遇到的最大的挑战应该是与客户的沟通,有时候会因为语言不通产生一些问题。虽然在工作室中与建筑师们工作也会因为语言产生一些问题,但这两种情况完全不同,和同事们之间的相处只是需要更多的时间来彼此了解。现在,在与他们共事了几年后,我们之间许多事情都已经非常有默契了。

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微信图片_20210610114500
衍庆里项目


Q10

从您的专业层面上说,中国的设计与国外还存在哪些差异?你认为形成这些差异的原因是什么?
From professional perspective, what are the differences between Chinese design and western design? What’s the cause of these differences?

It would take many pages to explain which ones and above all why there are these differences. The Chinese culture is very strong and rooted and for centuries it has developed parallel to the Western one. Although cities and their buildings tend to look alike globally from a mere aesthetic analysis, behind there are profound differences. First of all, in the dynamics that guide the preparatory processes for the realization of the project, he actors to deal with are many and each one has requests to be answered. Functional and planimetric criteria (especially in the residential area) are often different as well as generally the references for what concerns the taste or the idea of ​​beauty, luxury, elegance, just to give examples. Furthermore, the speed of life here, its fluidity, are naturally also present in these processes. For example, how quickly you can get to the construction phase, as well the budget and details can be changed during the execution itself.

其实关于中国与国外的设计差异,需要花费很多篇幅来解释,比起关注哪些方面是存在差异的,更重要的是需要解释为什么会存在这些差异。中国文化博大精深,几个世纪以来它都与西方文化的发展齐头并进。尽管仅从美学方面来分析,全球范围内很多城市及其中的建筑物外形方面很相似,但其背后却存在着深刻的差异。首先,在指导项目落地的过程中,要处理的因素有很多,每一个细致的问题都需要考虑到。比如,功能和平面标准(特别是在住宅区)通常是不同的,并且通常是需要考虑是美、奢华还是优雅的品味。此外,建筑的生命周期,它的流动性,自然也存在于整个建造过程中。例如,进入施工阶段的周期,以及在执行过程中可以更改的预算和细节等,都是需要考虑的问题。


Stefano Boeri Architetti Intro

图片1

博埃里建筑设计事务所(中国)由斯坦法诺·博埃里先生和他的合伙人胥一波博士一起创建。

合伙人 胥一波
胥一波博士


SBA中国位于中国上海市,是SBA米兰总部在海外最重要的分支机构。自2011年起,SBA对中国的可持续城市建筑和现在建筑原型的进行深入研究,始终遵循SBA的生态未来和城市改造的原则和目标。在米兰垂直森林成功之后,SBA的生态城市概念一直活跃在世界建筑和城市化领域的前沿,并将米兰的垂直森林成功引入中国,中国黄冈以及南京的垂直森林最早将于2021年落地。目前,SBA中国已经具备了意大利的绿色理论和技术,并已在中国实现建成项目包括上海九江路501号华商证券交易所改造,浦东机场“雨林lounge”改造,居然之家体验MALL,MORE001绿色办公改造,百联集团时尚中心衍庆里改造等。另外,SBA中国也在积极推动中国和意大利的合作往来,不仅在建筑领域,还包括其他设计以及文化交流等方面都有着确实合作。

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